These images illustrate the difference in susceptibility to HSV-1 infection — indicated by orange staining — between central nervous system neurons top and peripheral nervous system neurons bottom in iPSC-derived neurons from a control patient without TLR3 mutations green staining for neuronal marker and blue for DNA.
A team of scientists developed a novel stem cell model to demonstrate that a pathway protecting neurons in the brain from herpes simplex virus 1 HSV-1 infection does not exist in neurons throughout the rest of the body.
The study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Scienceshelps explain why the virus is common in the peripheral nervous system but rarely infects the brain, and it provides new insights into mechanisms of HSV-1 encephalitis — a rare and deadly viral-induced inflammation of the brain. HSV-1 is a widespread virus that infects close to 80 percent of people around the globe. In most cases, the virus remains latent in the peripheral nervous system, from where it remerges to cause cold sores.
In rare cases, however, HSV-1 can reach the central nervous system and cause life-threatening brain swelling called encephalitis. HSV-1 encephalitis is the most common sporadic encephalitis of children and carries a high rate of mortality and complications.
Top 10 rare HSV (Holden Special Vehicles) cars
The research consortium previously demonstrated that cortical brain neurons from patients with mutations in a protein called TLR3 are highly susceptible to HSV-1 encephalitis — suggesting the protective role of the TLR3 pathway.
However, it remained unclear whether TLR3 mutations are also associated with increased susceptibility to HSV-1 in sensory neurons outside the brain, which thus might also contribute to the development of HSV-1 encephalitis. In the current study, the team of scientists developed a novel method for creating sensory neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCwhich would allow them to observe HSV-1 infection in cell cultures, for both healthy controls and patients with TLR3 mutations.
Using the new stem cell model, the scientists discovered that when the virus was added to the culture of human stem cell-derived sensory neurons, both the TLR3-mutated and control patients were equally susceptible to infection. Consistent with previous research, brain neurons from patients with the TLR3 mutation were highly susceptible to infection, while brain neurons from control patients were resistant to infection. The findings provide further support to the role of TLR3 pathway deficiencies in the development of HSV-1 encephalitis and deepen understanding of the disease, which could lead to new therapies and better diagnostics in the future.
Anna Williams is a content specialist in the medical school's Office of Communications. She writes news stories about basic science and clinical research, as well as events, education and faculty news. She holds a bachelor's degree in journalism from New York University.
Feinberg School of Medicine. By Anna Williams on Oct 1, Microbiology Public Health Research Students. Apr 8, 0. Apr 1, 0. Mar 26, 0. Comments are closed.The exact mechanisms of HSV-1 establishment, maintenance, latency, reactivation, and also the courses of recurrent ocular infections remain a mystery.
Comprehensive understanding of the HSV-1 disease process could lead to prevention of HSV-1 acute infection, reactivation, and more effective treatments of recurrent ocular disease. Animal models have been used for over sixty years to investigate our concepts and hypotheses of HSV-1 diseases. In this paper we present descriptions and examples of rabbit and mouse eye models of HSV-1 latency, reactivation, and recurrent diseases. We summarize studies in animal models of spontaneous and induced HSV-1 reactivation and recurrent disease.
Numerous stimuli that induce reactivation in mice and rabbits are described, as well as factors that inhibit viral reactivation from latency. The key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the mouse and rabbit models in relation to the study of ocular HSV-1 are discussed.
This paper is pertinent but not intended to be all inclusive. We will give examples of key papers that have reported novel discoveries related to the review topics. HSV-1 is remarkable in its ability to establish a lifelong latent infection in human hosts following exposure to the virus [ 12 ].
Numerous animal models have been used to study the phenomenon of HSV-1 latency, particularly in relation to the specific characteristics of virus strain and genetics, host response, and environmental factors. This paper will provide summaries and examples of latency, reactivation, inhibition of reactivation, and recurrent herpetic ocular lesions in rabbits and mice. After initial infection, HSV-1 travels by retrograde axonal transport to sensory ganglia to establish latency.
In this paper, we define latency as the retention of the quiescent viral genome in host neuronal tissue, with no demonstrable infectious virus present. Latency of HSV-1 occurs in the superior cervical ganglion SCG and trigeminal ganglion TGciliary ganglion, nodose ganglion, otic ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion, geniculate ganglion [ 13 ], ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, and root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve into the brainstem [ 4 — 6 ].
Latent HSV-1 has also been described in other nonneuronal tissues, such as the cornea [ 7 ]. Reactivation can occur spontaneously with virus strains known to be high phenotypic reactivators HPRsor after induction in latently infected animals [ 8 — 10 ].
Reactivation is identified by detection of HSV-1 DNA in tears and saliva and when infectious virus can be confirmed [ 12 ]. Recurrence is when HSV-specific corneal lesions are identified during latency. Recurrent lesions occur when HSV-1 is carried by anterograde transport to initial sites of infection or any site innervated by the latently infected ganglia and results in HSV-specific lesions followed by complications, such as stromal scarring, thinning, opacity, and neovascularization [ 12 ].One owner ex government vehicle with service hsitory, workshop apporved and priced to sell!
Holdenute, utility, Exceptional example, 4x4 turbo diesel, rare extra cab, tinted windows, bull bar, tow bar, and tonneau cover, one owner with service history Full books and good service history, rare manual SV6 in great condition and four near new Toyo tyres. Holdencommodore, sedan, Ultra rare chlorophyll manual ss-z wagon Original log books with service history Have the peace Complete, running well and in good condition. APV was a serious player in the Very rare vehicle. Only 28 made for its year in auto.
Walkinshaw upgrade holden colorado ltz. A rare find. Finished in black, optioned with factory bull bar, leather trim, tonneau cover, sat nav Stunning rare VF SS a powerful 6. Very Rare Black Edition Wagon with only kms with full service history and 2 keys. Comes with some great Features on top of the powerful Rare 1 of 3 on Holden records, all GTS and Monaro options from factory, straight with all body lines, original paint, only two minor rust It would be a perfect specimen to any Holden car collection, as of the rarity of the Purple on Purple colour scheme.Select cars to compare from your search results or vehicle pages.
To Save cars from your search results or vehicle pages you must first login. To Save a search to find the cars you like quickly you must first login. We take a look back at 10 of the best-ever HSVs. And one we hope they will build. Three new models were announced by the brand this week that will be among the last HSVs built using locally-manufactured Holdens. As HSV prepares for a transition to imported vehicles, we went digging in the archives to put together this list of our 10 favourite HSVs.
Here they are in no particular order:. HSV offered it with a 5. Production was limited to 85 units in total and it remains one of the most collectible HSVs today. It featured a kW 7.
HSV designed it for competition first, showroom second. Alan Grice and Win Percy won the Bathurst driving one. An HSV with kW for the first time! HSV sourced a tweaked 5. The C4B engine had outputs of kW at rpm and Nm at a peaky rpm. It was coupled to a heavy-duty six-speed manual and pushed HSV into a new realm of performance. InHolden rebirthed its iconic Monaro nameplate, and HSV capitalised on the performance benefits of the sleek two-door body shape. The GTS Coupe was a rocket ship; slipperier through the air and faster than the sedan.
Once again HSV had a new power king, but the E2 was more than that — it could finally go around a racetrack and handle the hammering. It was the third car in the world to feature magnetic dampers.
Human Stem Cell Model Reveals Mechanisms of Herpes Infection
The other two? A Ferrari and a Corvette. It produced kW through a four-speed auto, governed by an electronic, fly-by-wire throttle setup. On a stretch of road in South Australia, Skaife managed a two-way average speed of HSVs without magnetic dampers used to be too stiff, but the single suspension tune in the ClubSport is good, even on its inch wheel and tyre package.
Can't get enough Holden? Now read the full review on the last Holden Commodore. Waste time with some of our favourite car videos. By James Tublake 05 Apr Here's a few to get you started, including some blasts from the past.AWA motorist is in the driver's seat to become the owner of the coveted No. The first car off the production line has been allocated to City Motors HSV in Perth, in recognition of the dealership being the nation's biggest seller of HSVs last year.
City Motors HSV dealer principal Mark Branchi said making such a collector's car generally available was a rare event. The special-edition model, of which only will be made, celebrates the 20th birthday of the ClubSport - the most enduring and best-selling nameplate of Holden's performance arm. HSV spokesman Tim Jackson said the milestone was worthy of celebration: "If we step back 20 years tothis really was a watershed year for the HSV brand. The ClubSport has had four different engine variants over its life span: the original 5.
Sales last year just broke the mark but Mr Jackson said there had been a resurgence in interest in the ClubSport this year, triggered by the release of a more affordable model, the GXP.
The 20 Years of ClubSport model's price is the same as a regular ClubSport but it adds HSV's performance suspension, silver inch alloys, leather seats and a decal on the rear window. HSV enthusiasts will recognise the latter as a modern iteration of the original ClubSport badge. The No. It will not be available to its owner until August because HSV will have it on promotional duties. At the time of going to press, the car was still available, though is expected to sell quickly if still around when City Motors HSV opens at 8am today.
WA dealers also filled second and third places on the national HSV sales table, with Shacks and Brian Gardner also having stellar years. Mr Branchi said the strong WA economy had been a factor in HSV's local success but he also felt the work that had gone into giving dealerships a strong HSV identity had been important; for example, City Motors HSV had undergone a major renovation and had its own carpark, showroom and service department.HSV 20th Anniversary VE Clubsport R8 & VE Maloo Ute
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RARE 1/18 AUTOart HSV VX GTS SEDAN (Green) Diecast Car Model
These have bcome all the more significant now that Holden has discontinued the Commodore line. VX XU made. As before, it was powered by the lusty L67 supercharged V6, developing kW and Nm. While it was only available with a four-speed automatic, it made for a surprisingly rapid cruiser. VR Caprice i- 7 made. With this rare model, the 5.
VT Series 2 Senator V6- 6 made. Considering the W1 sedan boasted a claimed 4. Your humble narrator was the first to break this story in November The rarity of these things is well-documented. One of them was even painted the signature hue of its spirtual successor. Speaking of the aforementioned spiritual successor, this is it. The VS GTS-R grabbed attention like nothing else on the road, thanks to its enormous wing, lairy 90s grpahics and that distinctive paintjob. It was very serious, with a Blueprinted engine option available.
VSII Manta wagon- 20 made. The Manta featured subtle and understated styling elements but as it was a wagon, missed out on independent rear suspension. VL Calais SV made. The appearance was much more subtle than the ostentatious Walky, featuring pinstriping and minor body kit add-ons. Astra SV made. Here is an awesome video by Car consulting Australia giving us a look at a very rare vehicle.
Despite spending decades being considered a laughing stock, the HSV-ified Astra looks pretty cool in our opinion. Very thin on the ground now, as you might expect. Source: HSV Database.
Top 10 Best Rated Cars. January 8, July 25, December 8, March 17, October 11,